Canine Diseases, Worms and Parasites
By: Pug Puppy for Sale in Massachusetts
Canine Distemper - a widespread, often fatal viral disease. All dogs
should be vaccinated against this deadly virus. This neurological
disorder is one of the most feared canine diseases in the world. All
dogs, even older ones, should be vaccinated.
Canine Adenovirus - (both type-1 & type-2) causes infectious hepatitis and
respiratory infection. Hepatitis caused by adenovirus may cause severe
liver damage or death. Adenovirus is, also an important factor in
Bordetella Brochiseptica (Canine Parianfluenza or Kennel Cough) - the
most common bacteria implicated as a cause of respiratory disease in
the canine. It is commonly involved in the development of canine cough.
Frequently many patients within a household or kennel will be
If you board your pets you will need a more complete canine cough
protection, vaccinate with a Bordetella containing vaccine.
Canine Leptospirosis - bacterial infection that may lead to
permanent kidney damage. The disease is easily spread to other pets and
Note: Leptospirosis is a relatively rare disease that affects few dogs.
Today, most people give vaccines without Lepto to puppies (those 12
weeks of age or less). It has been shown that the Lepto portion of
vaccines may tie up a puppy's immune system somewhat and decrease their
response to the rest of the vaccine. In the latter portion of the
puppy's vaccinations schedule, vaccines with Lepto are used to protect
against this disease.
Canine Parvovirus - a disease of widespread distribution which may
cause severe dehydrating, diarrhea in dogs of varying ages. Parvovirus
infection is especially dangerous for puppies.
Canine Coronavirus - a contagious intestinal disease causing
vomiting and diarrhea in dogs of all ages. In areas where Coronavirus
is a problem, I recommend vaccinating for this disease at 5, 7, 9, 12,
15, & 18 weeks of age, then yearly.
Lyme, a bacterial disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, may be spread
through direct contact and by insects such as flies, fleas and ticks.
Arthritic-like symptoms may occur.
In areas where Lyme is a problem, we recommend vaccinating at 13 and 15
weeks of age, then yearly.
Rabies vaccination according to local law by your veterinarian.
Worms and Parasites
The Bitch should have her stool checked by a Vet or you ( if you own a
microscope ) before she is due to be bred. Most worming medications are
toxic and not safe during pregnancy. Many puppies are born with
Roundworm infestation. This is due to the larvae which lay dormant in
the dam and reactivate during pregnancy. Instructions on how to run a
fecal analysis, using a microscope are at the bottom of this page.
Example: A female puppy is born with roundworms, she is then treated
with the proper worm medications and now shows a negative stool. She is
roundworm free, except larvae has enter her stomach and intestine
lining, where they lay dormant. She matures to adulthood and is still
worm free. She gets bred by a male who is also worm free. During her
pregnancy the larvae in her lining of her stomach and intestines
reactivate. She still is worm free but the larvae are passed from her
milk to the puppies. The puppies now have Roundworms.
Roundworms are active in the intestines of puppies, often causing a
pot-bellied appearance and poor growth. The worms may be seen in vomit
or stool; a severe infestation can cause death by intestinal blockage.
This worm can grow to seven inches in length. Females can produce 200
thousand eggs in a day, eggs that are protected by a hard shell and can
exist in the soil for years. Dogs become infected by ingesting worm
eggs from contaminated soil. The eggs hatch in the intestine and the
resulting larva are carried to the lungs by the bloodstream. The larva
then crawls up the windpipe and gets swallowed, often causing the pup
to cough or gag. Once the larvae return to the intestine, they grow into adults.
Nemex 11 is a medication that treats both Round and Hookworm.
Nemex11 is safe and can be administered as early as 2 weeks old.
If given at 2 weeks of age, you can kill the adults before they have a
chance to lay eggs. You will be able to break the worms breeding cycle
and you may prevent your pups from developing a hook or roundworms
infestation. Preventing is easier then curing. Note # Be careful when
giving a 2 week old puppy liquids, they may choke and inhale the liquid
into their lungs. If this happens hold the puppy upside down to help
get the fluid out.
Hookworm are more serious and can be fatal. These are small, thin worms
that fasten to the wall of the small intestine and suck blood. Dogs get
hookworm if they come in contact with the larvae in contaminated soil.
As with roundworms, the hookworm larvae becomes an adult in the
intestine. The pups can contract hookworms in the uterus and the dam
can infest the pups through her milk. Look for signs of anemia, white
gums, listlessness and bloody stool.
Severe anemia may require blood transfusions.
If you find Tape then most likely you have or had fleas. Flea carry
tapeworm. If you kill the tapeworm and you still have not killed the
fleas, the tapeworm will come back. Tapes can be seen as pieces of
white rice crawling on the anus or stool. This is usually a segment
that has broken off of the adult tapeworm that is still living inside
Adult whip worms look like pieces of thread with one end enlarged. They
live in the cecum, the first section of the dog's large intestine.
Infestations are usually light, so an examination of feces may not
reveal the presence of eggs. Several checks may be necessary before a
diagnosis can be made.
Coccidia use to be thought of as a parasite that only came from unclean
kennels. Now we know it can be carried in by people, dogs and fleas.
Adults don't always has symptoms and can be carriers of Coccidia.
Symptoms are diarrhea, loss of appetite and listlessness. Blood appears
in the stool and has a odd odor. It can lead to dehydration and death.
If one puppy has it they all will, by fecal matter on the rectum and
from stepping in another puppies fecal matter. Eventually it will
spread to the whole house. Clean puppy cages often and bath all pups
and adults daily until it is gone. Bleach is used to clean the kennel
and grounds. Heavy Diarrhea can be treated with kaolin-pectin mixtures
but by treating with Albon the diarrhea will cease after 1 -2 days
treatment. Vets will prescribe Albon to cure the pups and adults.
Coccidia can only be seen by a microscope.
Just like most parasites, the heart worm goes through several life stages or
cycles before emergence as an adult and needs at least two hosts to complete
the cycle. The mosquito serves as the host for the larval stage of the
worm, called microfilariae. The mosquito ingests the larva when it
bites an infected dog and deposits its cargo in an uninfected dog when
seeking another blood meal. The microfilariae burrow into the dog, and
for three or four months, undergo several changes to reach adult form.
They then travel to the right side of the heart through a vein and
await the opportunity to reproduce. Adult heart worms can reach 12
inches in length and can remain in the dog's heart for several years.
Female heart worms bear live young, thousands of them in a day. These
young, the microfilariae circulate in the bloodstream for as long as
three years, waiting to hitch a ride in a bloodsucking mosquito. They
undergo changes in the mosquito that prepares them to infect the dog,
and they transfer back to the original species the next time the
mosquito bites. The process of change in the mosquito takes about 10
days in warm climates, but can take six weeks in colder temperatures.
The worms grow and multiply, infesting the chambers on the right side
of the heart and the arteries in the lungs. They can also lodge in the
veins of the liver and the veins entering the heart. The first sign of
heart worm infestation may not manifest for a year after infection, and
even then the soft cough that increases with exercise may be dismissed
as unimportant by the owner. But the cough worsens and the dog may
actually faint from exertion; he tires easily , is weak and listless,
loses weight and condition, and may cough up blood. Breathing becomes
more difficult as the disease progresses. The progression is traumatic:
the dog's quality of life diminishes drastically and he can no longer
take a long walk in the park without respiratory distress. Congestive
heart failure ensues, and the once-active, outgoing pet is in grave
If a blood test or the onset of symptoms alert owner and veterinarian
to the presence of this devastating parasite, treatment is possible and
successful if the disease has not progressed too far. The first step is
to evaluate the dog and treat any secondary problems of heart failure
or liver or kidney insufficiency so that he can withstand the
treatment. The next step is to kill the adult worms with an arsenic
compound. The drug is administered in two doses each day for two days,
followed by several weeks of inactivity to give the dog's system a
chance to absorb the dead worms. Exertion can cause the dead worms to
dislodge, travel to the lungs, and cause death. Owners should have
their dogs tested for heart worm and placed on preventive. Heart worm
preventive medications can be bought at any Vet. Doses can be given
daily or monthly. Some of the drugs also rid the dog of other parasitic
We all know what fleas are, and we all hate fleas.
Please read all flea medications carefully. Any flea product that is
recommended by a Vet is best. Follow the directions exactly as your Vet
recommends. If you do not treat all animals, your house and grounds,
the way its directed, it will be useless and you will not get rid of
Note: Whatever is safe for a kitten is good to use on a pup.
Pert shampoo and Palmolive dish washing liquid kills fleas on young
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